kṛṣṇa-bhakti pāya, tāṅre ye kare smaraṇa
parameśvara-dāsa—of the name Parameśvara dāsa; nityānanda-eka-śaraṇa—completely surrendered to the lotus feet of Nityānanda; kṛṣṇa-bhakti pāya—gets love of Kṛṣṇa; tāṅre—him; ye—anyone; kare—does; smaraṇa—remembering.
Parameśvara dāsa, said to be the fifth gopāla of kṛṣṇa-līlā, completely surrendered to the lotus feet of Nityānanda. Anyone who remembers his name, Parameśvara dāsa, will get love of Kṛṣṇa very easily.
The Caitanya-bhāgavata states that Parameśvara dāsa, known sometimes as Parameśvarī dāsa, was the life and soul of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. The body of Parameśvara dāsa was the place of Lord Nityānanda’s pastimes. Parameśvara dāsa, who lived for some time at Khaḍadaha village, was always filled with the ecstasy of a cowherd boy. Formerly he was Arjuna, a friend of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. He was the fifth among the twelve gopālas. He accompanied Śrīmatī Jāhnavā-devī when she performed the festival at Kheturi. It is stated in the Bhakti-ratnākara that by the order of Śrīmatī Jāhnavā-mātā, he installed Rādhā-Gopīnātha in the temple at Āṭapura in the district of Hugalī. The Āṭapura station is on the narrow-gauge railway line between Howrah and Āmatā. Another temple in Āṭapura, established by the Mitra family, is known as the Rādhā-Govinda temple. In front of the temple, in a very attractive place among two bakula trees and a kadamba tree, is the tomb of Parameśvarī Ṭhākura, and above it is an altar with a tulasī bush. It is said that only one flower a year comes out of the kadamba tree. It is offered to the Deity.
Parameśvarī Ṭhākura belonged, it is said, to a vaidya family. A descendant of his brother’s is at present a worshiper in the temple. Some of their family members still reside in the district of Hugalī, near the post office of Caṇḍītalā. The descendants of Parameśvarī Ṭhākura took many disciples from brāhmaṇa families, but as these descendants gradually took to the profession of physicians, persons from brāhmaṇa families ceased becoming their disciples. The family titles of Parameśvarī’s descendants are Adhikārī and Gupta. Unfortunately, his family members do not worship the Deity directly; they have engaged paid brāhmaṇas to worship the Deity. In the temple, Baladeva and Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Gopinātha are together on the throne. It is supposed that the Deity of Baladeva was installed later because according to transcendental mellow, Baladeva, Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā cannot stay on the same throne. On the full moon day of Vaiśākha (April-May), the disappearance festival of Parameśvarī Ṭhākura is observed in this temple. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/11/29
Sri Madhavendra Puri Avirbhava Tithi [appearance day] Srila Prabhupada glorifies Sri Madhavendra Puri
THE DISCIPLIC SUCCESSION
Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ. (Bhagavad-gīta, 4.2) This Bhagavad-gītā As It Is is received through this disciplic succession:
1) Kṛṣṇa, 2) Brahmā, 3) Nārada; 4) Vyāsa, 5) Madhva, 6) Padmanābha, 7) Nṛhari, 8) Mādhava, 9) Akṣobhya, 10) Jayatīrtha, 11) Jñānasindhu, 12) Dayānidhi, 13) Vidyānidhi, 14) Rājendra, 15) Jayadharma, 16) Puruṣottama, 17) Brahmaṇyatīrtha, 18) Vyāsatīrtha, 19) Lakṣmīpati, 20) Mādhavendra Purī, 21) Īśvara Purī, (Nityānanda, Advaita), 22) Lord Caitanya, 23) Rūpa (Svarūpa, Sanātana), 24) Raghunātha, Jīva, 25) Kṛṣṇadāsa, 26) Narottama, 27) Viśvanātha, 28) (Baladeva) Jagannātha, 29) Bhaktivinode, 30) Gaurakiśora, 31) Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 32) His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/bg/introduction
Srila Prabhupada cites Srila Madhavendra Puri
Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī, the grand-spiritual master of Lord Caitanya, took leave of all karma-kāṇḍīya obligations in the following words:
sandhyā-vandana bhadram astu bhavato bhoḥ snāna tubhyaṁ namo
bho devāḥ pitaraś ca tarpaṇa-vidhau nāhaṁ kṣamaḥ kṣamyatām
yatra kvāpi niṣadya yādava-kulottamasya kaṁsa-dviṣaḥ
smāraṁ smāram aghaṁ harāmi tad alaṁ manye kim anyena me
“O my evening prayer, all good unto you. O my morning bath, I bid you good-bye. O demigods and forefathers, please excuse me. I am unable to perform any more offerings for your pleasure. Now I have decided to free myself from all reactions to sins simply by remembering anywhere and everywhere the great descendant of Yadu and the great enemy of Kaṁsa [Lord Kṛṣṇa]. I think that this is sufficient for me. So what is the use of further endeavors?”
Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī said further:
mugdhaṁ māṁ nigadantu nīti-nipuṇā bhrāntaṁ muhur vaidikāḥ
mandaṁ bāndhava-sañcayā jaḍa-dhiyaṁ muktādarāḥ sodarāḥ
unmattaṁ dhanino viveka-caturāḥ kāmam mahā-dāmbhikam
moktuṁ na kṣāmate manāg api mano govinda-pāda-spṛhām
“Let the sharp moralist accuse me of being illusioned; I do not mind. Experts in Vedic activities may slander me as being misled, friends and relatives may call me frustrated, my brothers may call me a fool, the wealthy mammonites may point me out as mad, and the learned philosophers may assert that I am much too proud; still my mind does not budge an inch from the determination to serve the lotus feet of Govinda, though I be unable to do it.”
And also Prahlāda Mahārāja said:
dharmārtha-kāma iti yo ‘bhihitas trivarga
īkṣā trayī naya-damau vividhā ca vārtā
manye tad etad akhilaṁ nigamasya satyaṁ
svātmārpaṇaṁ sva-suhṛdaḥ paramasya puṁsaḥ
“Religion, economic development and sense gratification are celebrated as three means of attaining the path of salvation. Of these, īkṣā trayī especially, i.e., knowledge of the self, knowledge of fruitive acts and logic and also politics and economics, are different means of livelihood. All these are different subjects of Vedic education, and therefore I consider them temporary engagements. On the other hand, surrendering unto the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu is a factual gain in life, and I consider it the ultimate truth.” (SB 7.6.26)
The whole matter is concluded in the Bhagavad-gītā (2.41) as vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ, or the absolute path of perfection. Śrī Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, a great Vaiṣṇava scholar, defines this as bhagavad-arcanā-rūpaika-niṣkāma-karmabhir viśuddha-cittaḥ-accepting transcendental loving service to the Lord as the prime duty, free from fruitive reaction.
So Mahārāja Parīkṣit was perfectly right when he firmly accepted the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, renouncing all karma-kāṇḍīya conceptions of life. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/sb/2/4/3-4
Srila Madhavendra Puri is in the Brahma Madhva Gaudiya Sampradaya
When Lord Brahmā was perplexed about how to construct the material manifestations in the universe and went down within the water to find out the means and the source of his lotus seat, he heard the word tapa vibrated twice. Taking the path of tapa is the second birth of the desiring disciple. The word upāśṛṇot is very significant. It is similar to upanayana, or bringing the disciple nearer to the spiritual master for the path of tapa. So Brahmājī was thus initiated by Lord Kṛṣṇa, and this fact is corroborated by Brahmājī himself in his book the Brahma-saṁhitā. In the Brahma-saṁhitā Lord Brahmā has sung in every verse govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi **.
Thus Brahmā was initiated by the Kṛṣṇa mantra, by Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, and thus he became a Vaiṣṇava, or a devotee of the Lord, before he was able to construct the huge universe. It is stated in the Brahma-saṁhitā that Lord Brahmā was initiated into the eighteen-letter Kṛṣṇa mantra, which is generally accepted by all the devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa. We follow the same principle because we belong to the Brahmā sampradāya, directly in the disciplic chain from Brahmā to Nārada, from Nārada to Vyāsa, from Vyāsa to Madhva Muni, from Madhva Muni to Mādhavendra Purī, from Mādhavendra Purī to Īśvara Purī, from Īśvara Purī to Lord Caitanya and gradually to His Divine Grace Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, our divine master.
One who is thus initiated in the disciplic succession is able to achieve the same result or power of creation. Chanting of this holy mantra is the only shelter of the desireless pure devotee of the Lord. Simply by such tapasya, or penance, the devotee of the Lord achieves all perfections like Lord Brahmā. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/sb/2/9/6
Srila Madhavendra Puri appeared with Advaita Acarya
mādhava-īśvara-purī, śacī, jagannātha
advaita ācārya prakaṭa hailā sei sātha
mādhava—Mādhavendra Purī; īśvara-purī—Īśvara Purī; śacī—Śacīmātā; jagannātha—Jagannātha Miśra; advaita ācārya—Advaita Ācārya; prakaṭa—manifested; hailā—were; sei—this; sātha—with.
Mādhavendra Purī, Īśvara Purī, Śrīmatī Śacīmātā and Śrīla Jagannātha Miśra all appeared with Śrī Advaita Ācārya.
Whenever the Supreme Personality of Godhead descends in His human form, He sends ahead all His devotees, who act as His father, teacher and associates in many roles. Such personalities appear before the descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Before the appearance of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, there appeared His devotees like Śrī Mādhavendra Purī; His spiritual master, Śrī Īśvara Purī; His mother, Śrīmatī Śacīdevī; His father, Śrī Jagannātha Miśra; and Śrī Advaita Ācārya. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/3/95
Śrī Advaita Prabhu and Īśvara Purī, Lord Caitanya’s spiritual master, were both disciples of Mādhavendra Purī
advaita-ācārya-gosāñi sākṣāt īśvara
prabhu guru kari’ māne, tiṅho ta’ kiṅkara
advaita-ācārya—of the name Advaita Ācārya; gosāñi—the Lord; sākṣāt īśvara—directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; guru kari’ māne—accepts Him as His teacher; tiṅho ta’ kiṅkara—but He is the servant.
Lord Advaita Ācārya is directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although Lord Caitanya accepts Him as His preceptor, Advaita Ācārya is a servant of the Lord.
Lord Caitanya always offered respects to Advaita Prabhu as He would to His father because Advaita was even older than His father; yet Advaita Prabhu always considered Himself a servant of Lord Caitanya. Śrī Advaita Prabhu and Īśvara Purī, Lord Caitanya’s spiritual master, were both disciples of Mādhavendra Purī, who was also the spiritual master of Nityānanda Prabhu. Thus Advaita Prabhu, as Lord Caitanya’s spiritual uncle, was always to be respected because one should respect one’s spiritual master’s Godbrothers as one respects one’s spiritual master. Because of all these considerations, Śrī Advaita Prabhu was superior to Lord Caitanya, yet Advaita Prabhu considered Himself Lord Caitanya’s subordinate. ink to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/5/147
Srila Prabhupada explains that Mādhavendra Purī is the disciple of Lakṣmīpati
mādhavendra-purīra iṅho śiṣya, ei jñāne
ācārya-gosāñire prabhu guru kari’ māne
mādhavendra-purīra—of Mādhavendra Purī; iṅho—Advaita Ācārya; śiṣya—disciple; ei jñāne—by this consideration; ācārya-gosāñire—unto Advaita Ācārya; prabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; guru—spiritual master; kari’-taking as; māne—obeys Him.
Thinking “He [Śrī Advaita Ācārya] is a disciple of Śrī Mādhavendra Purī,” Lord Caitanya obeys Him, respecting Him as His spiritual master.
Śrī Mādhavendra Purī is one of the ācāryas in the disciplic succession from Madhvācārya. Mādhavendra Purī had two principal disciples, Īśvara Purī and Śrī Advaita Prabhu. Therefore the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava-sampradāya is a disciplic succession from Madhvācārya. This fact has been accepted in the authorized books known as Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā and Prameya-ratnāvalī, as well as by Gopāla Guru Gosvāmī. The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā clearly states the disciplic succession of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas as follows: “Lord Brahmā is the direct disciple of Viṣṇu, the Lord of the spiritual sky. His disciple is Nārada, Nārada’s disciple is Vyāsa, and Vyāsa’s disciples are Śukadeva Gosvāmī and Madhvācārya. Padmanābha Ācārya is the disciple of Madhvācārya, and Narahari is the disciple of Padmanābha Ācārya. Mādhava is the disciple of Narahari, Akṣobhya is the direct disciple of Mādhava, and Jayatīrtha is the disciple of Akṣobhya. Jayatīrtha’s disciple is Jñānasindhu, and his disciple is Mahānidhi. Vidyānidhi is the disciple of Mahānidhi, and Rājendra is the disciple of Vidyānidhi. Jayadharma is the disciple of Rājendra. Puruṣottama is the disciple of Jayadharma. Śrīmān Lakṣmīpati is the disciple of Vyāsatīrtha, who is the disciple of Puruṣottama. And Mādhavendra Purī is the disciple of Lakṣmīpati.” ink to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/6/40
Śrī Mādhavendra Purī was the first person in that disciplic succession to exhibit the symptoms of love of Godhead
jaya śrī mādhavapurī kṛṣṇa-prema-pūra
bhakti-kalpatarura teṅho prathama aṅkura
jaya—all glories; śrī mādhava-purī—unto Mādhavendra Purī; kṛṣṇa-prema-pūra—a storehouse of all love of Godhead; bhakti-kalpa-tarura—of the desire tree of devotional service; teṅho—he is; prathama—first; aṅkura—fructification.
All glories to Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, the storehouse of all devotional service unto Kṛṣṇa! He is a desire tree of devotional service, and it is in him that the seed of devotional service first fructified.
Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, also known as Śrī Mādhava Purī, belonged to the disciplic succession from Madhvācārya and was a greatly celebrated sannyāsī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the third disciplic descendant from Śrī Mādhavendra Purī. The process of worship in the disciplic succession of Madhvācārya was full of ritualistic ceremonies, with hardly a sign of love of Godhead; Śrī Mādhavendra Purī was the first person in that disciplic succession to exhibit the symptoms of love of Godhead and the first to write a poem beginning with the words ayi dīna-dayārdra nātha, “O supremely merciful Personality of Godhead.” In that poem is the seed of Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s cultivation of love of Godhead. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/9/10
Īśvara Purī appeared in a brāhmaṇa family and was the most beloved disciple of Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī.
śrī-iśvarapurī-rūpe aṅkura puṣṭa haila
āpane caitanya-mālī skandha upajila
śrī-īśvara-purī—by the name Śrī Īśvara Purī; rūpe—in the form of; aṅkura—the seed; puṣṭa—cultivated; haila—became; āpane—Himself; caitanya-mālī—the gardener of the name Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; skandha—trunk; upajila—expanded.
The seed of devotional service next fructified in the form of Śrī Īśvara Purī, and then the gardener Himself, Caitanya Mahāprabhu, became the main trunk of the tree of devotional service.
Śrī Īśvara Purī was a resident of Kumāra-haṭṭa, where there is now a railroad station known as Kāmarhaṭṭa. Nearby there is also another station named Hālisahara, which belongs to the Eastern Railway that runs from the eastern section of Calcutta.
Īśvara Purī appeared in a brāhmaṇa family and was the most beloved disciple of Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī. In the last portion of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Antya 8.28-31), it is stated:
īśvara-purī gosāñi kare śrī-pada sevana
sva-haste karena mala-mūtrādi mārjana
nirantara kṛṣṇa-nāma karāya smaraṇa
kṛṣṇa-nāma kṛṣṇa-līlā śunāya anukṣaṇa
tuṣṭa hañā purī tāṅre kaila āliṅgana
vara dilā kṛṣṇe tomāra ha-uka prema-dhana
sei haite īśvara-purī premera sāgara
“At the last stage of his life Śrī Mādhavendra Purī became an invalid and was completely unable to move, and Īśvara Purī so completely engaged himself in his service that he personally cleaned up his stool and urine. Always chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra and reminding Śrī Mādhavendra Purī about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the last stage of his life, Īśvara Purī gave the best service among his disciples. Thus Mādhavendra Purī, being very pleased with him, blessed him, saying, ‘My dear boy, I can only pray to Kṛṣṇa that He will be pleased with you.’ Thus Īśvara Purī, by the grace of his spiritual master, Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, became a great devotee in the ocean of love of Godhead.”
Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī states in his Gurv-aṣṭaka prayer, yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādo yasyāprasādān na gatiḥ kuto ‘pi: “By the mercy of the spiritual master one is blessed by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa. Without the grace of the spiritual master one cannot make any advancement.” It is by the mercy of the spiritual master that one becomes perfect, as vividly exemplified here. A Vaiṣṇava is always protected by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but if he appears to be an invalid, this gives a chance to his disciples to serve him. Īśvara Purī pleased his spiritual master by service, and by the blessings of his spiritual master he became such a great personality that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted him as His spiritual master.
Śrīla Īśvara Purī was the spiritual master of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but before initiating Lord Caitanya he went to Navadvīpa and lived for a few months in the house of Gopīnātha Ācārya. At that time Lord Caitanya became acquainted with him, and it is understood that he served Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by reciting his book, Kṛṣṇa-līlāmṛta. This is explained in Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata, Ādi-līlā, Chapter Eleven.
To teach others by example how to be a faithful disciple of one’s spiritual master, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, visited the birthplace of Īśvara Purī at Kāmarhaṭṭa and collected some earth from his birthsite. This He kept very carefully, and He used to eat a small portion of it daily. This is stated in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Ādi-līlā, Chapter Seventeen. It has now become customary for devotees, following the example of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, to go there and collect some earth from that place. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/9/11
Srila Prabhupada explains Srila Madhavendra Puri is the root of the tree of Madhurya Bhakti
paramānanda purī, āra keśava bhāratī
brahmānanda purī, āra brahmānanda bhāratī
viṣṇu-purī, keśava-purī, purī kṛṣṇānanda
śrī-nṛsiṁhatīrtha, āra purī sukhānanda
ei nava mūla nikasila vṛkṣa-mūle
ei nava mūle vṛkṣa karila niścale
paramānanda purī—of the name Paramānanda Purī; āra—and; keśava bhāratī—of the name Keśava Bhāratī; brahmānanda purī—of the name Brahmānanda Purī; āra—and; brahmānanda bhāratī—of the name Brahmānanda Bhāratī; viṣṇu-purī—of the name Viṣṇu Purī; keśava-purī—of the name Keśava Purī; purī kṛṣṇānanda—of the name Kṛṣṇānanda Purī; śrī-nṛsiṁha-tīrtha—of the name Śrī Nṛsiṁha Tīrtha; āra—and; purī sukhānanda—of the name Sukhānanda Purī; ei nava—of these nine; mūla—roots; nikasila—fructified; vṛkṣa-mūle—in the trunk of the tree; ei nava mūle—in these nine roots; vṛkṣa—the tree; karila niścale—became very steadfast.
Paramānanda Purī, Keśava Bhāratī, Brahmānanda Purī and Brahmānanda Bhāratī, Śrī Viṣṇu Purī, Keśava Purī, Kṛṣṇānanda Purī, Śrī Nṛsiṁha Tīrtha and Sukhānanda Purī-these nine sannyāsī roots all sprouted from the trunk of the tree. Thus, the tree stood steadfastly on the strength of these nine roots.
Paramānanda Purī: Paramānanda Purī belonged to a brāhmaṇa family of the Trihut district in Uttara Pradesh. Mādhavendra Purī was his spiritual master. In relationship with Mādhavendra Purī, Paramānanda Purī was very dear to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā, there is the following statement:
sannyāsīra madhye īśvarera priya-pātra
āra nāhi eka purī gosāñi se mātra
sannyāsi-pārṣade ei dui adhikārī
niravadhi nikaṭe thākena dui jana
prabhura sannyāse kare daṇḍera grahaṇa
purī dhyāna-para dāmodarera kīrtana
yata-prīti īśvarera purī-gosāñire
dāmodara-svarūpereo tata prīti kare
“Among his sannyāsī disciples, Īśvara Purī and Paramānanda Purī were very dear to Mādhavendra Purī. Thus Paramānanda Purī, like Svarūpa Dāmodara, who was also a sannyāsī, was very dear to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and was His constant associate. When Lord Caitanya accepted the renounced order, Paramānanda Purī offered Him the daṇḍa. Paramānanda Purī was always engaged in meditation, and Śrī Svarūpa was always engaged in chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. As Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered full respect to His spiritual master, Īśvara Purī, He similarly respected Paramānanda Purī and Svarūpa Dāmodara.” It is described in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā, Chapter Three, that when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu first saw Paramānanda Purī He made the following statement:
āji dhanya locana, saphala āji janma
saphala āmāra āji haila sarva-dharma
prabhu bale āji mora saphala sannyāsa
āji mādhavendra more ha-ilā prakāśa
“My eyes, My mind, My religious activities and My acceptance of the sannyāsa order have now all become perfect because today Mādhavendra Purī is manifest before Me in the form of Paramānanda Purī.” The Caitanya-bhāgavata further states:
kathokṣaṇe anyo ‘nye karena praṇāma
paramānanda-purī caitanyera priya-dhāma
“Thus Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu exchanged respectful obeisances with Paramānanda Purī, who was very dear to Him.” Paramānanda Purī established a small monastery behind the western side of the Jagannātha temple, where he had a well dug to supply water. The water, however, was bitter, and therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu prayed to Lord Jagannātha to allow Ganges water to come into the well to make it sweet. When Lord Jagannātha granted the request, Lord Caitanya told all the devotees that from that day hence, the water of Paramānanda Purī’s well should be celebrated as Ganges water, for any devotee who would drink it or bathe in it would certainly get the same benefit as that derived from drinking or bathing in the waters of the Ganges. Such a person would certainly develop pure love of Godhead. It is stated in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā:
prabhu bale āmi ye āchiye pṛthivīte
niścaya-i jāniha purī-gosāñira prīte
“Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to say: ‘I am living in this world only on account of the excellent behavior of Śrī Paramānanda Purī.’ ” The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 118, states, purī śrī-paramānando ya āsīd uddhavaḥ purā. “Paramānanda Purī is none other than Uddhava.” Uddhava was Lord Kṛṣṇa’s friend and uncle, and in caitanya-līlā the same Uddhava became the friend of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His uncle in terms of their relationship in the disciplic succession.
Keśava Bhāratī: The Sarasvatī, Bhāratī and Purī sampradāyas belong to the Śṛṅgerī Maṭha in South India, and Śrī Keśava Bhāratī, who at that time was situated in a monastery in Katwa, belonged to the Bhāratī-sampradāya. According to some authoritative opinions, although Keśava Bhāratī belonged to the Śaṅkara-sampradāya, he had formerly been initiated by a Vaiṣṇava. He is said to have been a Vaiṣṇava on account of having been initiated by Mādhavendra Purī, for some say that he took sannyāsa from Mādhavendra Purī. The temple and Deity worship started by Keśava Bhāratī are still existing in the village known as Khāṭundi, which is under the postal jurisdiction of Kāndarā in the district of Burdwan. According to the managers of that maṭha, the priests are descendants of Keśava Bhāratī, and some say that the worshipers of the Deity are descendants of the sons of Keśava Bhāratī. In his householder life he had two sons, Niśāpati and Ūṣāpati, and a brāhmaṇa of the name Śrī Nakaḍicandra Vidyāratna, who was a member of the family of Niśāpati, was the priest in charge at the time that Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī visited this temple. According to some, the priests of the temple belong to the family of Keśava Bhāratī’s brother. Still another opinion is that they descend from Mādhava Bhāratī, who was another disciple of Keśava Bhāratī’s. Mādhava Bhāratī’s disciple Balabhadra, who also later became a sannyāsī of the Bhāratī-sampradāya, had two sons in his family life, named Madana and Gopāla. Madana, whose family’s surname was Bhāratī, lived in the village of Āuriyā, and Gopāla, whose family’s surname was Brahmacārī, lived in the village of Denduḍa. There are still many living descendants of both families.
In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 52, it is said:
purā kṛṣṇāya yo muniḥ
dadau sāndīpaniḥ so ‘bhūd
“Sāndīpani Muni, who formerly offered the sacred thread to Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, later became Keśava Bhāratī.” It is he who offered sannyāsa to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. There is another statement from the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 117: iti kecit prabhāṣante ‘krūraḥ keśava-bhāratī. “According to some authoritative opinions, Keśava Bhāratī is an incarnation of Akrūra.” Keśava Bhāratī offered the sannyāsa order to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the year 1432 śakābda (A.D. 1510) in Katwa. This is stated in the Vaiṣṇava-mañjuṣā, Part Two.
Brahmānanda Purī: Śrī Brahmānanda Purī was one of the associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu while He was performing kīrtana in Navadvīpa, and he also joined Lord Caitanya in Jagannātha Purī. We may note in this connection that the name Brahmānanda is accepted not only by Māyāvādī sannyāsīs but by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs also. One of our foolish Godbrothers criticized our sannyāsī Brahmānanda Svāmī, saying that this was a Māyāvādī name. The foolish man did not know that Brahmānanda does not always refer to the impersonal. Parabrahman, the Supreme Brahman, is Kṛṣṇa. A devotee of Kṛṣṇa can therefore also be called Brahmānanda; this is evident from the fact that Brahmānanda Purī was one of the chief sannyāsī associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Brahmananda Bhāratī: Brahmānanda Bhāratī went to see Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha-dhāma. At that time, he used to wear only a deerskin to cover himself, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu indirectly indicated that He did not like this deerskin covering. Brahmānanda Bhāratī therefore gave it up and accepted a loincloth of saffron color, as used by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs. For some time, he lived with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha Purī. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/9/13-15
Srila Prabhupada describes the story of Srila Madhavendra Puri and how he discovered the deity of Gopala on top of Govardhana Hill
]In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives the following summary of the Fourth Chapter. Passing along the path of Chatrabhoga and coming to Vṛddhamantreśvara, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu reached the border of Orissa. On His way He enjoyed transcendental bliss by chanting and begging alms in different villages. In this way He reached the celebrated village of Remuṇā, where there is a Deity of Gopīnātha. There He narrated the story of Mādhavendra Purī, as He had heard it from His spiritual master, Īśvara Purī. The narration is as follows.
One night while in Govardhana, Mādhavendra Purī dreamed that the Gopāla Deity was within the forest. The next morning, he invited his neighborhood friends to accompany him to excavate the Deity from the jungle. He then established the Deity of Śrī Gopālajī on top of Govardhana Hill with great pomp. Gopāla was worshiped, and the Annakūṭa festival was observed. This festival was known everywhere, and many people from the neighboring villages came to join. One night the Gopāla Deity again appeared to Mādhavendra Purī in a dream and asked him to go to Jagannātha Purī to collect some sandalwood pulp and smear it on the body of the Deity. Having received this order, Mādhavendra Purī immediately started for Orissa. Traveling through Bengal, he reached Remuṇā village and there received a pot of condensed milk (kṣīra) offered to the Deity of Gopīnāthajī. This pot of condensed milk was stolen by Gopīnātha and delivered to Mādhavendra Purī. Since then, the Gopīnātha Deity has been known as Kṣīra-corā-gopīnātha, the Deity who stole the pot of condensed milk. After reaching Jagannātha Purī, Mādhavendra Purī received permission from the King to take out one maṇa of sandalwood and eight ounces of camphor. Aided by two men, he brought these things to Remuṇā. Again he saw in a dream that Gopāla at Govardhana Hill desired that very sandalwood to be turned into pulp mixed with camphor and smeared over the body of Gopīnāthajī. Understanding that that would satisfy the Gopāla Deity at Govardhana, Mādhavendra Purī executed the order and returned to Jagannātha Purī.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu narrated this story for Lord Nityānanda Prabhu and other devotees and praised the pure devotional service of Mādhavendra Purī. When He recited some verses composed by Mādhavendra Purī, He went into an ecstatic mood. But when He saw that many people were assembled, He checked Himself and ate some sweet rice prasāda. Thus, He passed that night, and the next morning He again started for Jagannātha Purī.
yasmai dātuṁ corayan kṣīra-bhāṇḍaṁ
gopīnāthaḥ kṣīra-corābhidho ‘bhūt
śrī-gopālaḥ prādurāsīd vaśaḥ san
yat-premṇā taṁ mādhavendraṁ nato ‘smi
yasmai—unto whom; dātum—to deliver; corayan—stealing; kṣīra-bhāṇḍam—the pot of sweet rice; gopīnāthaḥ—Gopīnātha; kṣīra-corā—stealer of a pot of sweet rice; abhidhaḥ—celebrated; abhūt—became; śrī-gopālaḥ—Śrī Gopāla Deity; prāduḥrāsīt—appeared; vaśaḥ—captivated; san—being; yat-premṇā—by his love; tam—unto him; mādhavendram—Mādhavendra Purī, who was in the Madhva-sampradāya; nataḥ asmi—I offer my respectful obeisances.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto Mādhavendra Purī, who was given a pot of sweet rice stolen by Śrī Gopīnātha, celebrated thereafter as Kṣīra-corā. Being pleased by Mādhavendra Purī’s love, Śrī Gopāla, the Deity at Govardhana, appeared to the public vision.
Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura annotates that this Gopāla Deity was originally installed by Vajra, the grandson of Kṛṣṇa. Mādhavendra Purī rediscovered Gopāla and established Him on top of Govardhana Hill. This Gopāla Deity is still situated at Nāthadvāra and is under the management of descendants of Vallabhācārya. The worship of the Deity is very luxurious, and one who goes there can purchase varieties of prasāda by paying a small price. CCML 4.1
Sri Srinivasa acarya
tāṅra madhye rūpa-sanātana–baḍa śākhā
anupama, jīva, rājendrādi upaśākhā
tāṅra—within that; madhye—in the midst of; rūpa-sanātana—the branch known as Rūpa-Sanātana; baḍa śākhā—the big branch; anupama—of the name Anupama; jīva—of the name Jīva; rājendra-ādi—and Rājendra and others; upaśākhā—their subbranches.
Among these branches, Rūpa and Sanātana were principal. Anupama, Jīva Gosvāmī and others, headed by Rājendra, were their subbranches.
In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 195, it is said that Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī was formerly Vilāsa-mañjarī gopī. From his very childhood Jīva Gosvāmī was greatly fond of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He later came to Navadvīpa to study Sanskrit, and, following in the footsteps of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, he circumambulated the entire Navadvīpa-dhāma. After visiting Navadvīpa-dhāma he went to Benares to study Sanskrit under Madhusūdana Vācaspati, and after finishing his studies in Benares he went to Vṛndāvana and took shelter of his uncles, Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana. This is described in the Bhakti-ratnākara. As far as our information goes, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī composed and edited at least twenty-five books. They are all very celebrated, and they are listed as follows: (1) Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa, (2) Sūtra-mālikā, (3) Dhātu-saṅgraha, (4) Kṛṣṇārcā-dīpikā, (5) Gopāla-virudāvalī, (6) Rasāmṛta-śeṣa, (7) Śrī Mādhava-mahotsava, (8) Śrī Saṅkalpa-kalpavṛkṣa, (9) Bhāvārtha-sūcaka-campū, (10) Gopāla-tāpanī-ṭīkā, (11) a commentary on the Brahma-saṁhitā, (12) a commentary on the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, (13) a commentary on the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, (14) a commentary on the Yogasāra-stava, (15) a commentary on the Gāyatrī-mantra, as described in the Agni Purāṇa, (16) a description of the Lord’s lotus feet derived from the Padma Purāṇa, (17) a description of the lotus feet of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, (18) Gopāla-campū (in two parts) and (19-25) seven sandarbhas: the Krama-, Tattva-, Bhagavat-, Paramātma-, Kṛṣṇa-, Bhakti- and Prīti-sandarbha. After the disappearance of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī in Vṛndāvana, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī became the ācārya of all the Vaiṣṇavas in Bengal, Orissa and the rest of the world, and it is he who used to guide them in their devotional service. In Vṛndāvana he established the Rādhā-Dāmodara temple, where we had the opportunity to live and retire until the age of sixty-five, when we decided to come to the United States of America.
When Jīva Gosvāmī was still present, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī compiled his famous Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Later, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī inspired Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura and Duḥkhī Kṛṣṇadāsa to preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness in Bengal. Jīva Gosvāmī was informed that all the manuscripts that had been collected from Vṛndāvana and sent to Bengal for preaching purposes were plundered near Viṣṇupura, in Bengal, but later he received the information that the books had been recovered. Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī awarded the designation Kavirāja to Rāmacandra Sena, a disciple of Śrīnivāsa Ācārya’s, and to Rāmacandra’s younger brother Govinda. While Jīva Gosvāmī was alive, Śrīmatī Jāhnavī-devī, the pleasure potency of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, went to Vṛndāvana with a few devotees. Jīva Gosvāmī was very kind to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas, the Vaiṣṇavas from Bengal. Whoever went to Vṛndāvana he provided with a residence and prasāda. His disciple Kṛṣṇadāsa Adhikārī listed all the books of the Gosvāmīs in his diary. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/10/85
mahāprabhura priya bhṛtya–raghunātha-dāsa
sarva tyaji’ kaila prabhura pada-tale vāsa
mahāprabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; priya—very dear; bhṛtya—servant; raghunātha-dāsa—Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; sarva tyaji’-renouncing everything; kaila—did; prabhura—of the Lord; pada-tale—under the shelter of the lotus feet; vāsa—habitation.
Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, the forty-sixth branch of the tree, was one of the most dear servants of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He left all his material possessions to surrender completely unto the Lord and live at His lotus feet.
Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was most probably born in the year 1416 śakābda (A.D. 1495) in a kāyastha family as the son of Govardhana Majumdāra, who was the younger brother of the then Zamindar, Hiraṇya Majumdāra. The village where he took birth is known as Śrī Kṛṣṇapura. On the railway line between Calcutta and Burdwan is a station named Triśābaghā, and about one and a half miles away is the village of Śrī Kṛṣṇapura, where the parental home of Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was situated. A temple of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda is still there. In front of the temple is a large open area but no large hall for meetings. However, a rich Calcutta gentleman named Haricaraṇa Ghoṣa, who resided in the Simlā quarter, recently repaired the temple. The entire temple compound is surrounded by walls, and in a small room just to the side of the temple is a small platform on which Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī used to worship the Deity. By the side of the temple is the dying River Sarasvatī.
The forefathers of Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī were all Vaiṣṇavas and were very rich men. His spiritual master at home was Yadunandana Ācārya. Although Raghunātha dāsa was a family man, he had no attachment for his estate and wife. Seeing his tendency to leave home, his father and uncle engaged special bodyguards to watch over him, but nevertheless he managed to escape their vigilance and went away to Jagannātha Purī to meet Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This incident took place in the year 1439 śakābda (A.D. 1518). Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī compiled three books, named Stava-mālā (or Stavāvalī), Dāna-carita and Muktācarita. He lived a long time. For most of his life he resided at Rādhā-kuṇḍa. The place where Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī performed his devotional service still exists by Rādhā-kuṇḍa. He almost completely gave up eating, and therefore he was very skinny and of weak health. His only concern was to chant the holy name of the Lord. He gradually reduced his sleeping until he was almost not sleeping at all. It is said that his eyes were always full of tears. When Śrīnivāsa Ācārya went to see Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, the Gosvāmī blessed him by embracing him. Śrīnivāsa Ācārya requested his blessings for preaching in Bengal, and Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī granted them. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā (186) it is stated that Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was formerly the gopī named Rasa-mañjarī. Sometimes it is said that he was Rati-mañjarī. Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/10/91
Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, Śrī Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, Śrī Bhagavān dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, Śrīla Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja and later Śrī Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura of Calcutta always engaged in nāma-bhajana and certainly did not live anywhere but Vṛndāvana. Presently, the members of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement throughout the world live in materially opulent cities, such as London, New York, Los Angeles, Paris, Moscow, Zurich and Stockholm. However, we are satisfied with following in the footsteps of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura and other ācāryas. Because we live in the temples of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and continuously hold hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana-the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa-we consequently live in Vṛndāvana and nowhere else. We are also following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by attempting to construct a temple in Vṛndāvana for our disciples throughout the world to visit.Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/madhya/16/281