Sri Murari Gupta







Sri Murari Gupta

 The readers of this small description of the life and precepts of Lord Caitanya will profit much to go through the books of Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura (Śrī Caitanyabhāgavata) and Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī (Śrī Caitanyacaritāmṛta). The early life of the Lord is most fascinatingly expressed by the author of Caitanyabhāgavata, and as far as the teachings are concerned, they are more vividly explained in the Caitanyacaritāmṛta. Now they are available to the English-speaking public in our Teachings of Lord Caitanya.

The Lord’s early life was recorded by one of His chief devotees and contemporaries, namely Śrīla Murāri Gupta, a medical practitioner of that time, and the latter part of the life of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was recorded by His private secretary Śrī Dāmodara Gosvāmī, or Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara, who was practically a constant companion of the Lord at Purī. These two devotees recorded practically all the incidents of the Lord’s activities, and later on all the books dealing with the Lord, which are above mentioned, were composed on the basis of kaḍacās (notebooks) by Śrīla Dāmodara Gosvāmī and Murāri Gupta.https://prabhupadabooks.com/sb/1/introduction/sb_introduction

advaita ācārya, nityānanda, śrīnivāsa

gadādhara, dāmodara, murāri, haridāsa

āra yata caitanya-kṛṣṇera bhakta-gaṇa

bhakti-bhāve śire dhari sabāra caraṇa

SYNONYMS

advaita ācāryaAdvaita Ācārya; nityānanda—Lord Nityānanda; śrīnivāsa—Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita; gadādharaGadādhara Paṇḍita; dāmodaraSvarūpa Dāmodara; murāriMurāri Gupta; haridāsaHaridāsa Ṭhākura; āra—other; yata—all; caitanyakṛṣṇera—of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya; bhaktagaṇa—devotees; bhaktibhāve—with a devotional attitude; śire—on my head; dhari—I take; sabāra—of all of them; caraṇa—the lotus feet.

TRANSLATION

Bowing down with devotion, I hold on my head the lotus feet of Advaita Ācārya, Nityānanda, Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita, Gadādhara, Svarūpa Dāmodara, Murāri Gupta, Haridāsa and all the other devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya..

PURPORT

The author of Śrī Caitanyacaritāmṛta teaches us that we must offer our respectful obeisances to all such pure confidential devotees of Lord Caitanya if we indeed want to know Him in truth. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/4/227-228

śrī-murāri gupta śākhā–premera bhāṇḍāra

prabhura hṛdaya drave śuni’ dainya yāṅra

SYNONYMS

śrīmurāri gupta—of the name Śrī Murāri Gupta; śākhā—branch; premera—of love of Godhead; bhāṇḍāra—store; prabhura—of the Lord; hṛdaya—the heart; drave—melts; śuni‘-hearing; dainya—humility; yāṅra—of whom.

TRANSLATION

Murāri Gupta, the twenty-first branch of the tree of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, was a storehouse of love of Godhead. His great humility and meekness melted the heart of Lord Caitanya.

PURPORT

Śrī Murāri Gupta wrote a book called Śrī Caitanyacarita. He belonged to a vaidya physician family of Śrīhaṭṭa, the paternal home of Lord Caitanya, and later became a resident of Navadvīpa. He was among the elders of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Lord Caitanya exhibited His Varāha form in the house of Murāri Gupta, as described in the Caitanyabhāgavata, Madhyalīlā, Third Chapter. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu exhibited His mahāprakāśa form, He appeared before Murāri Gupta as Lord Rāmacandra. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu were sitting together in the house of Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura, Murāri Gupta first offered his respects to Lord Caitanya and then to Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. Nityānanda Prabhu, however, was older than Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and therefore Lord Caitanya remarked that Murāri Gupta had violated social etiquette, for he should have first shown respect to Nityānanda Prabhu and then to Him. In this way, by the grace of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Murāri Gupta was informed about the position of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, and the next day he offered obeisances first to Lord Nityānanda and then to Lord Caitanya. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu gave chewed pan, or betel nut, to Murāri Gupta. Once Śivānanda Sena offered food to Lord Caitanya that had been cooked with excessive ghee, and the next day the Lord became sick and went to Murāri Gupta for treatment. Lord Caitanya accepted some water from the waterpot of Murāri Gupta, and thus He was cured. The natural remedy for indigestion is to drink a little water, and since Murāri Gupta was a physician, he gave the Lord some drinking water and cured Him.

When Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared in the house of Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura in His Caturbhuja mūrti, Murāri Gupta became His carrier in the form of Garuḍa, and in these pastimes of ecstasy the Lord then got up on his back. It was the desire of Murāri Gupta to leave his body before the disappearance of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but the Lord forbade him to do so. This is described in Caitanyabhagāvata, Madhyalīlā, Chapter Twenty. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu one day appeared in ecstasy as the Varāha mūrti, Murāri Gupta offered Him prayers. He was a great devotee of Lord Rāmacandra, and his staunch devotion is vividly described in the Caitanyacaritāmṛta, Madhyalīlā, Fifteenth Chapter, verses 137 through 157.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/10/49

pratigraha nāhi kare, nā laya kāra dhana

ātma-vṛtti kari’ kare kuṭumba bharaṇa

SYNONYMS

pratigraha nāhi kare—he did not accept charity from anyone; —not; laya—take; kāra—anyone’s; dhana—wealth; ātmavṛtti—own profession; kari‘-executing; kare—maintained; kuṭumba—family; bharaṇa—provision.

TRANSLATION

Śrīla Murāri Gupta never accepted charity from friends, nor did he accept money from anyone. He practiced as a physician and maintained his family with his earnings.

PURPORT

It should be noted that a gṛhastha (householder) must not make his livelihood by begging from anyone. Every householder of the higher castes should engage himself in his own occupational duty as a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya or vaiśya, but he should not engage in the service of others, for this is the duty of a śūdra. One should simply accept whatever he earns by his own profession. The engagements of a brāhmaṇa are yajana, yājana, paṭhana, pāṭhana, dāna and pratigraha. A brāhmaṇa should be a worshiper of Viṣṇu, and he should also instruct others how to worship Him. A kṣatriya can become a landholder and earn his livelihood by levying taxes or collecting rent from tenants. A vaiśya can accept agriculture or general trade as an occupational duty. Since Murāri Gupta was born in a physician’s family (vaidyavaṁśa), he practiced as a physician, and with whatever income he earned he maintained his family. As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, everyone should try to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead through the execution of his occupational duty. That is the perfection of life. This system is called daivīvarṇāśrama. Murāri Gupta was an ideal gṛhastha, for he was a great devotee of Lord Rāmacandra and Caitanya Mahāprabhu. By practicing as a physician, he maintained his family and at the same time satisfied Lord Caitanya to the best of his ability. This is the ideal of householder life. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/10/50

cikitsā karena yāre ha-iyā sadaya

deha-roga bhāva-roga,–dui tāra kṣaya

SYNONYMS

cikitsā—medical treatment; karena—did; yāre—upon whom; haiyā—becoming; sadaya—merciful; deharoga—the disease of the body; bhāvaroga—the disease of material existence; dui—both; tāra—his; kṣaya—diminished.

TRANSLATION

As Murāri Gupta treated his patients, by his mercy both their bodily and spiritual diseases subsided.

PURPORT

Murāri Gupta could treat both bodily and spiritual disease because he was a physician by profession and a great devotee of the Lord in terms of spiritual advancement. This is an example of service to humanity. Everyone should know that there are two kinds of diseases in human society. One disease, which is called adhyātmika, or material disease, pertains to the body, but the main disease is spiritual. The living entity is eternal, but somehow or other, when in contact with the material energy, he is subjected to the repetition of birth, death, old age and disease. The physicians of the modern day should learn from Murāri Gupta. Although modern philanthropic physicians open gigantic hospitals, there are no hospitals to cure the material disease of the spirit soul. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement has taken up the mission of curing this disease, but people are not very appreciative because they do not know what this disease is. A diseased person needs both proper medicine and a proper diet, and therefore the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement supplies materially stricken people with the medicine of the chanting of the holy name, or the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahāmantra, and the diet of prasāda. There are many hospitals and medical clinics to cure bodily diseases, but there are no such hospitals to cure the material disease of the spirit soul. The centers of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement are the only established hospitals that can cure man of birth, death, old age and disease. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/10/51

jaya dāmodara-svarūpa jaya murāri gupta

ei saba candrodaye tamaḥ kaila lupta

SYNONYMS

jaya—all glories; dāmodarasvarūpa—of the name Svarūpa Dāmodara; jaya—all glories; murāri gupta—of the name Murāri Gupta; ei saba—of all these; candraudaye—such moons having arisen; tamaḥ—darkness; kaila—made; lupta—dissipated.

TRANSLATION

All glories to Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta! All these brilliant moons have together dissipated the darkness of this material world.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/13/4

ādi-līlā-madhye prabhura yateka carita

sūtra-rūpe murāri gupta karilā grathita

SYNONYMS

ādilīlā—the original pastimes; madhye—within; prabhura—of the Lord; yateka—whatever; carita—activities; sūtrarūpe—in the form of notes; murāri gupta—of the name Murāri Gupta; karilā—has; grathita—recorded.

TRANSLATION

All the pastimes enacted by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His ādililā were recorded in summary form by Murāri Gupta. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/13/15

dāmodara-svarūpa, āra gupta murāri

mukhya-mukhya-līlā sūtre likhiyāche vicāri’

SYNONYMS

dāmodarasvarūpa—of the name Svarūpa Dāmodara; āra—and; gupta murāri—of the name Murāri Gupta; mukhya-mukhya—most important; līlā—pastimes; sūtre—in notes; likhiyāche—have written; vicāri‘-by mature deliberation.

TRANSLATION

Devotees like Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta have recorded all the principal pastimes of Lord Caitanya in the form of notes, after deliberate consideration. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/13/46

sei, anusāre likhi līlā-sūtragaṇa

vistāri’ varṇiāchena tāhā dāsa-vṛndāvana

SYNONYMS

sei—that; anusāre—following; likhi—I write; līlā—pastimes; sūtragaṇa—notes; vistāri‘-very explicitly; varṇiyāchena—has described; tāhā—that; dāsavṛndāvanaVṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura.

TRANSLATION

The notes kept by Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta are the basis of this book. Following those notes, I write of all the pastimes of the Lord. The notes have been described elaborately by Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/13/47

rāḍhadeśe janmilā ṭhākura nityānanda

gaṅgādāsa paṇḍita, gupta murāri, mukunda

SYNONYMS

rāḍhadeśe—the place where there is no Ganges; janmilā—took birth; ṭhākura nityānandaNityānanda Prabhu; gaṅgādāsa paṇḍita—of the name Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita; gupta murāri—of the name Murāri Gupta; mukunda—of the name Mukunda.

TRANSLATION

In Rāḍhadeśa, the part of Bengal where the Ganges is not visible, Nityānanda Prabhu, Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita, Murāri Gupta and Mukunda took birth.

.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/13/61

tabe sapta-prahara chilā prabhu bhāvāveśe

yathā tathā bhakta-gaṇa dekhila viśeṣe

SYNONYMS

tabe—thereafter; saptaprahara—twenty-one hours; chilā—remained; prabhu—the Lord; bhāvaāveśe—in ecstasy; yathā—anywhere; tathā—everywhere; bhaktagaṇa—the devotees; dekhila—saw; viśeṣe—specifically.

TRANSLATION

After this incident, the Lord remained in an ecstatic position for twenty-one hours, and all the devotees saw His specific pastimes.

PURPORT

In the Deity’s room there must be a bed for the Deity behind the Deity’s throne. (This system should immediately be introduced in all our centers. It does not matter whether the bed is big or small; it should be of a size the Deity room can conveniently accommodate, but there must be at least a small bed.) One day in the house of Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu sat down on the bed of Viṣṇu, and all the devotees worshiped Him with the Vedic mantras of the Puruṣasūkta, beginning with sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt. This vedastuti should also be introduced, if possible, for installations of Deities. While bathing the Deity, all the priests and devotees must chant this Puruṣasūkta and offer the appropriate paraphernalia for worshiping the Deity, such as flowers, fruits, incense, ārati paraphernalia, naivedya, vastra and ornaments. All the devotees worshiped Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu in this way, and the Lord remained in ecstasy for seven praharas, or twenty-one hours. He took this opportunity to show the devotees that He is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, who is the source of all other incarnations, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (10.8): ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate. All the different forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or viṣṇutattva, emanate from the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu exposed all the private desires of the devotees, and thus all of them became fully confident that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Some devotees call this exhibition of ecstasy by the Lord sāta-prahariyā bhāva, or “the ecstasy of twenty-one hours,” and others call it mahābhāvaprakāśa or mahāprakāśa. There are other descriptions of this sāta-prahariyā bhāva in the Caitanya-bhāvagata, Chapter Nine, which mentions that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu blessed a maidservant named Duḥkhī with the name Sukhī. He called for Kholāvecā Śrīdhara, and showed him His mahāprakāśa. Then He called for Murāri Gupta and showed him His feature as Lord Rāmacandra. He offered His blessings to Haridāsa Ṭhākura, and at this time He also asked Advaita Prabhu to explain the Bhagavad-gītā as it is (gītāra satyapāṭha) and showed special favor to Mukunda.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/17/18

varāha-āveśa hailā murāri-bhavane

tāṅra skandhe caḍi’ prabhu nācilā aṅgane

SYNONYMS

varāhaāveśa—the ecstasy of becoming Varāhadeva; hailā—became; murāribhavane—in the house of Murāri Gupta; tāṅra skandhe—on the shoulders of Murāri Gupta; caḍi‘-riding; prabhu—the Lord; nācilā—danced; aṅgane—in the yard.

TRANSLATION

One day Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt the ecstasy of the boar incarnation and got up on the shoulders of Murāri Gupta. Thus they both danced in Murāri Gupta’s courtyard.

PURPORT

One day Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to cry out, “Śūkara! Śūkara!” Thus crying out for the boar incarnation of the Lord, He assumed His form as the boar incarnation and got up on the shoulders of Murāri Gupta. He carried a small gāḍu, a small waterpot with a nozzle, and thus He symbolically picked up the earth from the depths of the ocean, for this is the pastime of Lord Varāha.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/17/19

murāri-gupta-mukhe śuni’ rāma-guṇa-grāma

lalāṭe likhila tāṅra ‘rāmadāsa’ nāma

SYNONYMS

murārigupta—of Murāri Gupta; mukhe—from the mouth; śuni‘-hearing; rāma—of Lord Rāmacandra; guṇagrāma—glories; lalāṭe—on the forehead; likhila—wrote; tāṅra—of Murāri Gupta; rāmadāsa—the eternal servant of Lord Rāmacandra; nāma—the name.

TRANSLATION

Murāri Gupta was a great devotee of Lord Rāmacandra. When Lord Caitanya heard Lord Rāmacandra’s glories from his mouth, He immediately wrote on his forehead “rāmadāsa” [the eternal servant of Lord Rāmacandra]. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/17/69

murārike kahe tumi kṛṣṇa vaśa kailā

śuniyā murāri śloka kahite lāgilā

SYNONYMS

murārike—unto Murāri; kahe—says; tumi—you; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; vaśa—satisfied; kaila—made; śuniyā—hearing; murāri—of the name Murāri; śloka—verse; kahite—to speak; lāgila—began.

TRANSLATION

Lord Caitanya then praised Murāri Gupta, saying, “You have satisfied Lord Kṛṣṇa.” Hearing this, Murāri Gupta quoted a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/17/77

kvāhaṁ daridraḥ pāpīyān

kva kṛṣṇaḥ śrī-niketanaḥ

brahma-bandhur iti smāhaṁ

bāhubhyāṁ parirambhitaḥ

SYNONYMS

kva—whereas; aham—I (am); daridraḥ—very poor; pāpīyān—sinful; kva—whereas; kṛṣṇaḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śrīniketanaḥ—the shelter of the goddess of fortune; brahmabandhuḥ—a caste brāhmaṇa without brahminical qualifications; iti—thus; sma—certainly; aham—I (am); bāhubhyām—by the arms; parirambhitaḥ—embraced.

TRANSLATION

” ‘Since I am but a poor, sinful brahmabandhu, not brahminically qualified although born in a brāhmaṇa family, and You, Lord Kṛṣṇa, are the shelter of the goddess of fortune, it is simply wonderful, my dear Lord Kṛṣṇa, that You have embraced me with Your arms.’ “

PURPORT

This is a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.81.16) spoken by Sudāmā Vipra in the presence of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This and the previous verse quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam clearly indicate that although Kṛṣṇa is so great that it is not possible for anyone to satisfy Him, He exhibits His greatness by being personally satisfied even with one who is disqualified from so many angles of vision. Sudāmā Vipra was born in a family of brahmaṇas, and he was a learned scholar and a class friend of Kṛṣṇa’s, yet he considered himself unfit to be strictly called a brāhmaṇa. He called himself a brahmabandhu, meaning “one born in a brāhmaṇa family but not brahminically qualified.” Because of His great respect for brāhmaṇas, however, Kṛṣṇa embraced Sudāmā Vipra, although he was not a regular brāhmaṇa but a brahmabandhu, or friend of a brāhmaṇa family. Murāri Gupta could not be called even a brahmabandhu because he was born of a vaidya family and according to the social structure was therefore considered a śūdra. But Kṛṣṇa bestowed special mercy upon Murāri Gupta because he was a beloved devotee of the Lord, as stated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The purport of Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s elaborate discussion of this subject is that no qualification in this material world can satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, yet everything becomes successful simply through development of devotional service to the Lord.

The members of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness cannot even call themselves brahma-bandhus. Therefore our only means for satisfying Kṛṣṇa is to pursue the injunctions of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who says:

yāre dekha, tāre kaha ‘kṛṣṇa’-upadeśa
āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra’ ei deśa

“Whomever you meet, instruct him on the teachings of Kṛṣṇa. In this way, on My order, become a spiritual master and deliver the people of this country.” (Cc. Madhya 7.128) Simply trying to follow the orders of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, we speak to the people of the world about Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. This will make us qualified to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/adi/17/78

murāri nā dekhiyā prabhu kare anveṣaṇa

murāri la-ite dhāñā āilā bahu-jana

SYNONYMS

murāriMurāri; —without; dekhiyā—seeing; prabhu—the Lord; kare—does; anveṣaṇa—inquiry; murāriMurāri Gupta; laite—to take; dhāñā—running; āilā—came; bahujana—many persons.

TRANSLATION

When Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu could not see Murāri amongst the devotees, He inquired about him. Thereupon many people immediately went to Murāri, running to take him to the Lord.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/madhya/11/153

tṛṇa dui-guccha murāri daśane dhariyā

mahāprabhu āge gelā dainyādhīna hañā

SYNONYMS

tṛṇa—of straw; dui—two; guccha—bunches; murāriMurāri; daśane—in his teeth; dhariyā—catching; mahāprabhu—of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āge—in front; gelā—went; dainyaadhīna—under obligation of meekness; hañā—becoming.

TRANSLATION

Thus Murāri Gupta, catching two bunches of straw in his teeth, went before Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu with humility and meekness.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/madhya/11/154

murāri dekhiyā prabhu āilā milite

pāche bhāge murāri, lāgilā kahite

SYNONYMS

murāriMurāri; dekhiyā—seeing; prabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āilā—came out; milite—to meet; pāche—thereafter; bhāge—runs away; murāriMurāri; lāgilā—began; kahite—to speak.

TRANSLATION

Upon seeing Murāri come to meet Him, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went up to him, but Murāri began to run away and speak as follows.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/madhya/11/155

more nā chuṅiha, prabhu, muñi ta’ pāmara

tomāra sparśa-yogya nahe pāpa kalevara

SYNONYMS

more—me; chuṅiha—do not touch; prabhu—my Lord; muñi—I; ta’—certainly; pāmara—most abominable; tomāra—of You; sparśayogya—fit to be touched; nahe—not; pāpa—sinful; kalevara—body.

TRANSLATION

“My Lord, please do not touch me. I am most abominable and am not fit for You to touch because my body is sinful.: https://prabhupadabooks.com/cc/madhya/11/156

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